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.\"	$OpenBSD: cat.1,v 1.35 2015/11/04 21:28:01 tedu Exp $
.\"	$NetBSD: cat.1,v 1.12 1995/09/27 05:38:55 cgd Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
.\"
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.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
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.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
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.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
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.\"     @(#)cat.1	8.3 (Berkeley) 5/2/95
.\"
.Dd $Mdocdate: January 15 2015 $
.Dt CAT 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm cat
.Nd concatenate and print files
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm cat
.Op Fl benstuv
.Op Ar
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility reads files sequentially, writing them to the standard output.
The
.Ar file
operands are processed in command-line order.
If
.Ar file
is a single dash
.Pq Sq -
or absent,
.Nm
reads from the standard input.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl b
Implies the
.Fl n
option but doesn't count blank lines.
.It Fl e
Implies the
.Fl v
option and also prints a dollar sign
.Pq Ql \&$
at the end of each line.
.It Fl n
Number the output lines, starting at 1.
.It Fl s
Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines, causing the output to be
single spaced.
.It Fl t
Implies the
.Fl v
option and also prints tab characters as
.Ql ^I .
.It Fl u
The output is guaranteed to be unbuffered (see
.Xr setvbuf 3 ) .
.It Fl v
Displays non-printing characters so they are visible.
Control characters print as
.Ql ^X
for control-X, with the exception of the tab and EOL characters,
which are displayed normally.
The tab character, control-I, can be made visible via the
.Fl t
option.
The DEL character (octal 0177) prints as
.Ql ^? .
Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are printed as
.Ql M-
(for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits.
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std cat
.Sh EXAMPLES
Print the contents of
.Ar file1
to the standard output:
.Pp
.Dl $ cat file1
.Pp
Sequentially print the contents of
.Ar file1
and
.Ar file2
to the file
.Ar file3 ,
truncating
.Ar file3
if it already exists.
See the manual page for your shell (e.g.,
.Xr sh 1 )
for more information on redirection.
.Pp
.Dl $ cat file1 file2 > file3
.Pp
Print the contents of
.Ar file1 ,
print data it receives from the standard input until it receives an
.Dv EOF
.Pq Sq ^D
character, print the contents of
.Ar file2 ,
read and output contents of the standard input again, then finally output
the contents of
.Ar file3 .
Note that if the standard input referred to a file, the second dash
on the command line would have no effect, since the entire contents of the file
would have already been read and printed by
.Nm
when it encountered the first
.Ql \&-
operand.
.Pp
.Dl $ cat file1 - file2 - file3
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr head 1 ,
.Xr less 1 ,
.Xr more 1 ,
.Xr pr 1 ,
.Xr sh 1 ,
.Xr tail 1 ,
.Xr vis 1 ,
.Xr setvbuf 3
.Rs
.%A Rob Pike
.%T "UNIX Style, or cat -v Considered Harmful"
.%J "USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings"
.%D 1983
.Re
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Nm
utility is compliant with the
.St -p1003.1-2008
specification.
.Pp
The flags
.Op Fl benstv
are extensions to that specification.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
utility appeared in
.At v1 .
.Sh CAVEATS
Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output
redirection, the following command will cause the original data in
.Ar file1
to be destroyed:
.Pp
.Dl $ cat file1 file2 > file1
.Pp
To append
.Ar file2
to
.Ar file1 ,
instead use:
.Pp
.Dl $ cat file2 >> file1