.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993
.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\" without specific prior written permission.
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\" @(#)cat.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/29/93
.Dd June 29, 1993
.Dt CAT 1
.Os BSD 3
.Nd concatenate and print files
.Op Fl benstuv
utility reads files sequentially, writing them to the standard output.
operands are processed in command line order.
A single dash represents the standard input.
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl b
option but doesn't number blank lines.
.It Fl e
option, and displays a dollar sign
.Pq Ql \&$
at the end of each line
.It Fl n
lines, starting at 1.
.It Fl s
Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines, causing the output to be
.It Fl t
option, and displays tab characters as
.Pq Ql ^I
.It Fl u
option guarantees that the output is unbuffered.
.It Fl v
Displays non-printing characters so they are visible.
Control characters print as
for control-X; the delete
character (octal 0177) prints as
Non-ascii characters (with the high bit set) are printed as
(for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits.
utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output
redirection, the command
.Dq Li cat file1 file 2 > file1
will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed!
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr head 1 ,
.Xr more 1 ,
.Xr pr 1 ,
.Xr tail 1
.%A Rob Pike
.%T "UNIX Style, or cat -v Considered Harmful"
.%J "USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings"
command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.